Class 9th Chemistry Unit 1 Fundamentals of Chemistry

chemistry 9th notes Chapter No 1

1. Symbol of Tungsten metal is:


2. The analysis which provides the identity of a substance is called:


3. Limestone is another name of:


4. Which one of the following elements has valency 2?


5. Percentage of Hydrogen in human body is:  


6. Which is liquid non-metal?


7. Atomic number of sodium is:


8. Number of naturally occurring elements is:


9. The removal of electron from a neutral atom gives rise to:


10. Atomic number of oxygen is:


11. Natural occurrence of oxygen in atmosphere is


12. Which element shows 1 valency?


13. Natural occurrence of Hydrogen in oceans is:


14. The main concern of Nuclear Chemistry is with the:


15. Silicon is present in Earth’s crust by weight:


16. A good example of homogeneous mixture is:


17. Number of protons in the nucleus of an atom is called:


18. The study of manufacturing of chemical compounds on commercial scale is called:


19. Which one of the following elements is found in most abundance in the Earth’s crust?


20. The extraction of the metals from the ores is called:


21. The most abundant gas present in atmosphere is:


22. Elements exist in the state may be:


23. The properties that are associated with physical state of matter are called:


24. Which one of the following is the mass number of potassium?


25. Majority of the elements exists in the form of:


26. The mass of one molecule of water is:


27. Which one is a physical property of substance?


28. The most abundant constituent of our body mass is:


29. 80 percent elements are:


30. The properties which depend upon the composition of the substance are called:


31. Sodium Hydroxide is also known as:


32. Percentage of Calcium in human body is:


33. The analysis which determines the amount of each component present in the sample is called:


34. A piece of matter in impure form is termed as:


35. percent age of oxygen in Earth’s crust is:


36. Which one of the following is a mixture?


37. The symbol of Boron element is


38. Which one of the following compounds can be separated by physical means?        


39. Valency of oxygen is:


40. In early ages, how many elements were known?


41. 1gram atom of carbon contains how many moles?


42. Mixture can be separated by means of:


43. Example of heterogeneous mixture is:


44. Valency of Iron is:


45. Percentage of Argon in nature is:


46. Which of the following specie is generated by sunlight?


47. The most abundant element occurring in the oceans is:


48. Percentage of water in a living body is:


49. Example of homogeneous mixture is: 


50. Valency of copper is:


51. Valency of carbon is:


52. Percentage of oxygen in our body mass is:


53. Oxygen is present in oceans


54. Which is liquid metal?


55. Mercury is a metal which exists:


56. Percentage of Nitrogen in atmosphere is:


57. Number of proton in oxygen are:


58. Metabolic processes of carbohydrates and proteins are studied in:


59. Weight percent age of chlorine present in oceans is:


60. Which branch of Chemistry deal with the behavior of gases, liquids and solids?


61. An element which occurs in gaseous state is:


62. Mass of 3 moles of oxygen atoms is:


63. John Dalton put forward his atomic theory in the beginning of:


64. Atom is electrically:   


65. Percentage of carbon in human body is:


66. The third abundant gas found in the Earth’s atmosphere is:


67. Sea water is the source of naturally occurring elements:


68. Percentage of Aluminum in Earth’s crust is: 


69. The study of hydrocarbons and their derivatives is called:


70. 1gram formula of NaCl contains grams:


71. Valency of Phosphorus is:


72. Potassium, Sulphur, magnesium and sodium constitute _________ of our body mass.


73. A piece of matter in its pure form is called:


74. Atomic number is represented by:


75. The valency of noble gases is:


76. Brass is a mixture of:


77. How many elements have been discovered till now?


78. Fourth state of matter is:


79. The symbol of potassium element is:


80. Which type of molecular ions are present in plasma?


Short Questions

Alpha particles (α) were used by Rutherford in his experiment. What was the source of these particles?
An atom is electrically neutral. Why?
Calculate the molecular mass of nitric acid (HNO₃). 
Calculate the number of molecules in 9g water.
Calculate the number of moles of 6 grams water.
Can you identify an atom without knowing number of neutrons in it?
Can you identify mixture, element or compound out of the following:
coca cola, petroleum, sugar, table salt, blood, gun powder
Define a compound.
Define a mole.
Define Analytical Chemistry
Define Atom
Define atomic mass unit (amu)
Define Avogadro’s Number. How it is related to mole of a substance.
Define biochemistry?
Define Chemical Formula
Define Chemistry.
Define Classification of Matter
Define Compound
Define diatomic molecules and triatomic molecules.
Define Electronic Configuration
Define Element
Define Environmental chemistry
Define formula mass.
Define Formula Unit
Define Free Radicals.
Define Gram Atomic Mass
Define Gram Formula Mass
Define Gram Molecular Mass
Define Inorganic Chemistry
Define Ion
Define mass number.
Define matter.
Define mixture
Define molar mass
Define mole
Define Molecular ions
Define Molecular Mass
Define molecule and its types
Define Molecule. Give examples.
Define Monoatomic molecules. Give an example.
Define Nuclear Chemistry
Define Organic Chemistry
Define Physical Chemistry
Define relative atomic mass.
Define representative particles of an element or compound
Define Science
Define Subatomic particles
Define substance
Define Types of Ions
Describe quantitative definition of Mole.      
Differentiate between molecule & molecular ion
Differentiate between cation and anion.
Differentiate between chemical and physical properties. Give an example of each.
Differentiate between empirical formula and molecular formula.
Differentiate between homoatomic and heteroatomic molecules with examples.
Differentiate between ion and free radicals
Differentiate between molecule and molecular ion.
Find out the mass of 3 moles of oxygen atoms.
Give any four differences between compound and mixture.
Give empirical and molecular formula of water and benzene.
How can you justify that air is a homogenous mixture. Identify substances present in it?
How many amu 1 g of a substance has?
How many atoms are present in one gram atomic mass of a substance?
How many molecules of water are present in half mole of water?
How many sub shells are present and what is maximum no. of electrons in them?
How many times is 1 mole of oxygen atom heavier than 1 mole of hydrogen atom?
How the electron is prevented to fall into the nucleus?
Identify among the following as cation, anion, free radical, molecular ion or molecule:            
Na⁺, Br·, N₂⁺, Cl₂, CO₃²⁻, H-, O₂, O₂⁻
Identify the following as diatomic, triatomic or polyatomic molecules:             
        H₂SO₄, H₂, CO₂, HCl, CO, C₆H₆, H₂O      
In which branch of chemistry the metabolic processes of carbohydrates and proteins are studied?
In which branch of chemistry behaviour of gases and liquids is studied?
In which one of the following the number of hydrogen atoms is more?      
2 moles of HCl or 1 mole of NH₃                  
Is atomic mass unit a SI unit of an atomic mass?
Is the mass of 1 mole of O and 1 mole of S same?
Name the elements represented by the following symbols:
Hg, Au, Fe, Ni, Co, W, Sn, Na, Ba, Br, Bi.
Name the isotopes of Carbon
Name the isotopes of Chlorine
Name the isotopes of Hydrogen
Name the isotopes of Uranium
Name the major elements of earth’s crust and state their percentage composition.
Name the three prime elements that make up the atmosphere.
Soft drink is a mixture and water is a compound. State reasoning.
State the empirical formula of acetic acid (CH₃COOH) and find out its molecular mass.
What was the concept of Greek philosophers?
What are isotopes?
What are radioactive isotopes
What are the types of mixture?
What do you know about corpuscular nature of matter?
What is an element?
What is atomic number?
What is Avogadro’s number?
What is difference between free radical and ion?
What is meaning of radioactive carbon dating?
What is meant by molecular ion? Give examples.
What is meant by valence?
What is relative atomic mass and why was it required?
What is relative atomic mass. Why it is needed?
What is the formula to find the maximum number of electrons in any shell?
What is the modern concept about atom?
What is the relationship between atomic number and atomic mass?
What is the relative atomic mass? How is it related to gram?
What was Dolton’s Atomic Theory?
What were the defects of Rutherford’s model of atom?
Where do electrons and protons reside within an atom?
Where do you find the neutrons?
Which branch of chemistry deals with the structure and properties of naturally occurring molecules?
Which branch of chemistry deals with atomic energy and its uses in daily life?
Which branch of chemistry deals with preparation of paints and paper?
Which elements do the following compounds contain?
Sugar, common salt, lime water and chalk.
Which isotope is used for treatment of cancer?
Which one has more atoms: 10 g of Al or 10 g of Fe?
Which term is used to represent the mass of 1 mole of molecules of a substance?
Who was Neil Bohr?
Who was Rutherford?
Why an ion acquires a net positive or negative charge?
Why atomic mass of an atom is Defined as relative atomic mass?
Why does 10 g nitrogen gas contain the same number of molecules as 10 g of carbon monoxide?
Why the energy of electrons is emitted when it jumps from higher to lower orbits.
Write Atomic Masses of
Write empirical and molecular formula of aspirin.
Write empirical and molecular formula of vinegar.

Long Questions

Define element and classify the elements with examples.
List five characteristics by which compounds can be distinguished from mixtures.
Differentiate between the following with examples:
i. Molecule and gram molecule ii. Atom and gram atom
iii. Molecular mass and molar mass iv. Chemical formula and gram formula
Mole is SI unit for the amount of a substance. Define it with examples?
Sulphuric acid is the king of chemicals. If you need 5 moles of sulphuric acid for a reaction, how many grams of it will you weigh?
Calcium Carbonate is insoluble in water. If you have 40g of it how many Ca⁺² and CO₃⁻² ions are present in it?
If you have 6.02 × 10²³ ions of aluminum how many sulphate ions will be required to prepare Al₂(SO₄)₃.
Calculate number of molecules in
A: 16g of H₂CO₃   
B: 20g of HNO₃ 
C: 30g of C₆H₁₂O₆.
Calculate the number of ions in the following compounds:
a. 10 g of AlCl₃ b. 30 g of BaCl₂ c. 58 g of H₂SO₄
What will be the mass of 2.05×10¹⁶ molecules of H₂SO₄
How many atoms are required to prepare 60 g of HNO₃
How many ions of Na⁺ and Cl- will be present in 30 g of NaCl?
How many molecules of HCl will be required to have 10 grams of it?
How many grams of Mg will have the same number of atoms as 6 grams of C have?
Write a note on isotopes of carbon, chlorine and hydrogen
What will be the mass of 2.05 x 10¹⁶ molecules of H₂SO₄?
There are 3.01 × 10²³ molecules of CO₂ present in a container. Calculate the number of moles and its mass.
Calculate the number of moles, number of molecules and number of atoms present in 6 grams of water.
What is Avogadro’s number? How it is related to mole?
Describe the different types of molecules.
Discuss differences between molecule and molecular ion.
Write down three differences between atom and ion.
Write down four differences between molecule and ion.
Explain with examples: gram molecular mass and gram formula mass.
Write down the significance of chemical formula.
State five steps for writing a chemical formula.
Define molecular formula and empirical formula. What is relationship between them? Explain with examples.
Define atomic number and mass number with examples.
Give differences between compound and mixture.
Write a note on the Elements.
Define element. Explain the valency of elements in simple covalent and ionic compounds.
Define chemistry and write its any five branches.


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