Class 9th Biology Chapter 4 Cells And Tissues

biology 9th notes Chapter No 4

1. _____________ are a major component of cilia and flagella.


2. Gas exchange in gills and lungs occur by the process of:


3. Cell membrane is mainly composed of:


4. The size of human red blood cell is:


5. Ribosomes are found floating freely in cytoplasm or are bound to:


6. ______________ is a process by which small molecules are forced to move across semi-permeable membrane with the aid of hydrostatic pressure or blood pressure.


7. Cellular drinking is called:


8. Sodium-potassium pumps spend energy to maintain higher concentrations of _________ inside the cell.


9. The major component of plant cell walls is:


10. Who discovered lysosomes?


11. Plant cells have and which are not present in animal cells


12. The life of red blood cells is days


13. In 1906, Golgi was awarded Nobel Prize for physiology and __________.


14. Mitochondrion functions in


15. The resolution of modern electron microscope is


16. Centrioles are involved in the formation of:


17. Each centriole is made of ___________ of microtubules.


18. The membranes of nerve cells have carrier proteins in the form of :


19. The chloroplast functions in


20. Which of the following is a double membrane bound organelle?


21. Glycolysis occurs in:


22. The two centrioles are collectively called a:


23. Prepare proteins in the cell


24. The cell walls of fungi are composed of:


25. ______________ provides space for proper functioning of organelles and also act as the site for various biochemical reactions.


26. Ribosomes are the sites of _____________synthesis.


27. The thin extensions of the inner mitochondrial membrane are known as


28. The cell walls of prokaryotes are made up of:


29. ______________ help cells to change their shape.


30. Chromosomes are composed of __________ and proteins.


31. In isotonic solutions plant cells become:


32. _______________ are visible only during cell division.


33. Which of these materials is not a component of the plasma membrane?


34. Cell wall of fungi is made up of:


35. Cells walls are found in these organisms, except for


36. In ______________transport molecules diffuse across cell membrane with the use of energy.


37. The shrinking of cytoplasm is called:


38. Golgi was given Nobel prize in


39. The wall of prokaryotes is composed of:


40. ___________________ is the movement of molecules from an area of higher concentration to the area of lower concentration.


41. Who developed first microscope?


42. The is the membrane enclosed structure in eukaryotic cells that contains the DNA of the cell?


43. ____________________ are the sites of aerobic respiration.


44. Which Tissues form Communication System of the body?


45. The is a major component of plant cell walls


46. Which of these clues would tell you whether a cell is prokaryotic or eukaryotic?


47. _________ involves the movement of water across a semi-permeable membrane.


48. ______________ is a dark spot and it is the site where Ribosomal RNA are formed.


49. ____________ solution has relatively more solute.


50. The stack of thylakoids is called


51. The photograph taken by microscope is called


52. Which of the following organelles are bounded by cell membranes


53. Chromosomes are present in ___________ in a prokaryotic cell.


54. There are micrometers (µm) in one millimeter (mm)


55. ___________ is the process of cellular ingestion of bulky materials by infolding of cell membrane.


56. ___________ is the process through which bulky material is exported.


57. ___________ is the transport of molecules with the help of transport molecule.


58. Human body is made up of types of cells:


59. Scientist who described the cell first time:


60. The plasma membrane does all of these except


61. The function of mitochondria is:


62. _____________ solutions have equal concentrations of solutes.


63. Which of the following organelle(s) are found in prokaryotes?


64. Infoldings of the inner membrane of mitochondria are called:


65. Cellular eating is called:


66. Which of the following is not an organelle?


67. Solution which contains more solute is called:


68. Which of these cellular organelles have their own DNA?


69. is not a component of cell membrane


Short Questions:

1. Briefly describe sclerenchyma tissues.
2. By which process unicellular organisms eliminate the waste materials?
3. Cell membrane is a semi-permeable barrier. Explain.
4. Cell work as an open system. Explain.
5. Define Active Transport.
6. Define Diffusion.
7. Define Epithelial tissue.
8. Define Facilitated Diffusion.
9. Define filtration.
10. Define hypertonic and hypotonic solutions.
11. Define Intercalary meristems.
12. Define Isotonic Solutions.
13. Define Lysosomes. Give their function.
14. Define meristematic tissues.
15. Define nuclear envelope.
16. Define nucleoid.
17. Define osmosis.
18. Define Passive transport?
19. Define Phagocytosis and Pinocytosis.
20. Define reverse osmosis.
21. Define semi-permeable membrane.
22. Define Turgor Pressure.
23. Define Vacuole and contractile vacuole.
24. Describe similarities between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
25. Describe the composition of cell wall of fungi and prokaryotes.
26. Describe the structure of Muscle Tissue? Give their types.
27. Differentiate between chloroplasts and chromoplasts.
28. Differentiate between chromoplast and leucoplast.
29. Differentiate between chromosomes and chromatin.
30. Differentiate between diffusion and facilitated diffusion.
31. Differentiate between exocytosis and endocytosis.
32. Differentiate between hypertonic and hypotonic solution.
33. Differentiate between Microfilament and Microtubule.
34. Differentiate between plasma membrane and cell membrane.
35. Differentiate between primary and secondary cell wall.
36. Differentiate between resolution and magnification.
37. Differentiate between SEM and TEM.
38. Differentiate between SER and RER.
39. Differentiate between simple and compound tissues.
40. Differentiate in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
41. Draw the diagram of mitochondria. Name its parts.
42. Enlist functions of xylem and phloem tissues.
43. Give any two functions of plasma membrane.
44. Give the composition of cell wall.
45. Give the composition of chromosomes.
46. Give the composition of Ribosomes.
47. Give the functions of Cell Wall.
48. Give the functions of Chromoplasts and Leucoplasts.
49. Give the functions of Golgi complex.
50. Give the functions of vacuole.
51. Give the organic matter present in the cytoplasm.
52. Give the resolution and magnification of light and electron microscope.
53. Give two principles of cell theory. 
54. How formation of cristae facilitates chemical reactions?
55. How Robert Hook introduced the cell?
56. Name any four organelles of eukaryotic cells.
57. Show the effect of hypotonic solution on the animal cell.
58. State the fluid-mosaic model.
59. What are adipose tissues?
60. What are Centrioles and Centrosomes?
61. What are centrioles?
62. What are collenchyma tissues?
63. What are cristae and cisternae?
64. What are Golgi vesicles?
65. What are Leucoplast?
66. What are microfilaments?
67. What are microtubules made of?
68. What are mycoplasmas?
69. What are permanent tissues? Name their types.
70. What are plasmodesmata?
71. What are plasmodesmata?
72. What are plastids? Give the types of plastids.
73. What are RER?
74. What are ribosomes?
75. What are subcellular particles?
76. What are support tissue?
77. What are the achievements of Robert Brown  and Rudolf Virchow for cell theory?
78. What are the different types of plastids? What is their function in plants?
79. What are the functions of centrioles?
80. What are thylakoids and grana?
81. What do you know about chromatin?
82. What do you know about endoplasmic reticulum?
83. What do you know about Nucleoplasm and Nucleolus?
84. What do you know about vacuoles?
85. What do you understand by Golgi complex?
86. What does “LM 109X” indicate?
87. What happens if the plant cell is placed in a hypotonic solution?
88. What is active transport?
89. What is are the contributions of Schleiden and Schwann in the discovery of cell theory?
90. What is Cell Membrane? Give its functions.
91. What is Chloroplast?
92. What is Chromoplast?
93. What is Connective tissue?
94. What is Cytoplasm? Give its functions.
95. What is cytoskeleton?
96. What is endocytosis?
97. What is Endoplasmic reticulum?
98. What is exocytosis?
99. What is fluid mosaic model?
100. What is Golgi apparatus/complex?
101. What is meant by cell wall? In which living organisms it is present? 
102. What is meant by microscopy and micrograph?
103. What is meant by nucleoplasm?
104. What is meant by plasmolysis?
105. What is meant by turgor pressure?
106. What is Mitochondrion?
107. What is nucleolus? Write down their function.
108. What is palsmolysis?
109. What is the difference between apical and lateral meristems?
110. What is the difference between cell membrane and plasma membrane?
111. What is the importance of turgor for plants?
112. What is the primary function of cell wall?
113. When you hear that epithelial tissue has a tightly packed structure. What functions do you expect?
114. Where chromosomes are found? Give their composition.
115. Why can EM (electron microscope) not be used to study life processes?
116. Why cell membrane is called semi-permeable membrane?
117. Why ribosomes are also present in prokaryotes?
118. Why rough endoplasmic reticulum is named so?
119. Why simple diffusion is called passive transport? Name other types of passive transport.
120. Why the cells of meristematic tissues have ability to divide?
121. Write down the function of centrosome.
122. Write down the function of nuclear envelope.
123. Write down the importance of ribosomes in the cytoplasm.
124. Write salient features of cell theory.
125. Write the functions of SER.


Long Questions

1. Describe different types of plastids.
2. Describe how turgor pressure develops in a plant cell.
3. Describe muscle tissues with different type.
4. Describe passage of molecules in the and out of cells through diffusion and facilitated diffusion.
5. Describe the differences in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
6. Describe the formation and function of lysosomes.
7. Describe the function of cell membrane and explain the fluid mosaic model.
8. Describe the internal structure of chloroplast and compare it with that of mitochondrion.
9. Describe the major animal tissues in terms of their cell specificities, locations and functions.
10. Describe the major plant tissues in terms of their cell specificities, locations and functions.
11. Describe the structure and function of cell wall in detail.
12. Describe the structure and function of endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus.
13. Describe the structure of cell wall.
14. Describe the structure of nucleus with the help of labled diagrams.
15. Describe the types of epithelial tissues.
16. Differentiate between Eukaryotic and Prokaryotic cells.
17. Discuss nucleus structure and function.
18. Discuss the applications of semi-permeable membrane.
19. Draw the diagram of ultrastructure of plant and animal cells. Also write their parts.
20. Explain electron microscope.
21. Explain endocytosis and exocytosis process.
22. Explain how surface area to volume ratio limits cell size.
23. Explain the functions of cell membrane.
24. Explain the major differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
25. Explain the phenomena involved in the passage of matter across cell membrane.
26. Explain the structure and function of Endoplasmic Reticulum.
27. Explain the structure of cell membrane with diagram.
28. Explain what would happen when a plant and an animal cell is placed in a hypertonic solution.
29. State the relationship between cell function and cell structure.
30. What are plastids? Give their types and functions.
31. What do you know about cell membrane. Also discuss fluid mosaic model.
32. What do you know about centrioles.
33. What is electron microscope. Describe its components, working and resolving power.
34. What is light microscope. Describe its components, working and resolving power.
35. Write a detailed note on Meristematic tissues.
36. Write a note on active transport
37. Write a note on animal tissues.
38. Write a note on Centriols.
39. Write a note on compound tissues.
40. Write a note on cytoplasm and cytoskeleton.
41. Write a note on cytoplasm.
42. Write a note on diffusion and osmosis.
43. Write a note on endocytosis and exocytosis.
44. Write a note on endoplasmic reticulum
45. Write a note on epidermal and ground tissues in plants.
46. Write a note on Golgi Apparatus.
47. Write a note on light microscope.
48. Write a note on lysosomes.
49. Write a note on mitochondria
50. Write a note on Mitochondria and draw its diagram.
51. Write a note on nervous tissue.
52. Write a note on nucleus.
53. Write a note on osmosis and discuss water balance problems.
54. Write a note on plant tissues.
55. Write a note on support tissues.
56. Write a note on vacuoles.
57. Write down the structure and function of Ribosomes.
58. Write the importance of osmosis in plant cells.
59. Write the main postulates of cell theory.

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