2nd Year Chemistry Chapter 7 Fundamental Principles of Organic Chemistry Solution

chemistry 12th notes chapter No 7

1. The state of hybridization of carbon atom in ethane is:

 
 
 
 

2. Carbonyl group is present in:

 
 
 
 

3. Number of isomers of C₄H₁₀ is:

 
 
 
 

4. The state of hybridization of carbon atom in methane is:

 
 
 
 

5. Ethers show the phenomena of:

 
 
 
 

6. The compound in which two alkyl groups are attached to carbonyl group is called:

 
 
 
 

7. Alkanoic acid is another name of:

 
 
 
 

8. The chemist who synthesized urea from ammonium cyanate was:

 
 
 
 

9. The crude petroleum is separated in fractions by:

 
 
 
 

10. Double bond consists of:

 
 
 
 

11. The Chemical formula of urea is:

 
 
 
 

12. Which molecule has a tetrahedral shape?

 
 
 
 

13. The formula of aniline is:

 
 
 
 

14. The reaction C₈H₁₈→ C₃H₆ + Fragments is:

 
 
 
 

15. Vital force theory was rejected by:

 
 
 
 

16. Which one of the following does not show geometric isomerism:

 
 
 
 

17. An isomer of ethanol is:

 
 
 
 

18. The process used to improve the quality of gasoline is called:

 
 
 
 

19. Antiknocking agent is:

 
 
 
 

20. Linear shape is associated with which set of hybrid orbitals?

 
 
 
 

21. Urea belongs to which class of compounds?

 
 
 
 

22. Hybridization of carbon in carbonyl group is:

 
 
 
 

23. The total coal resources of Pakistan estimated by geological survey are:

 
 
 
 

24. The self-linking property of elements is:

 
 
 
 

25. An isomer of C₂H₅OH is:

 
 
 
 

26. Concept of octane number was introduced by:

 
 
 
 

27. Which of the following compounds will exhibit cis-trans (isomerism):

 
 
 
 

28. Which of the following compound may exist as cis-trans isomer?

 
 
 
 

29. Metamerism is shown by:

 
 
 
 

30. How many isomers are possible for C₆H₁₄:

 
 
 
 

31. The type of hybridization of carbon atom in methane is:

 
 
 
 

32. Which of the following is the use of light naphtha:

 
 
 
 

33. Homologues of alkanes differ from each other by:

 
 
 
 

34. Fractional distillation of petroleum yields only about ⎯⎯⎯⎯ of gasoline.

 
 
 
 

35. A double bond consist of:

 
 
 
 

36. Geometric isomerism in alkenes is due to:

 
 
 
 

37. The hybridization of carbon atom in HCHO is:

 
 
 
 

38. The formula of cyclopropane is:

 
 
 
 

39. Which of the following form of coal has maximum percent age of carbon:

 
 
 
 

40. Which one of the following compounds is heterocyclic?

 
 
 
 

41. In ethane, each carbon atom is:

 
 
 
 

42. Which one of the following is not a heterocyclic compound?

 
 
 
 

43. The example of sp hybridization is:

 
 
 
 

44. The hardest form of coal is:

 
 
 
 

45. Carbon atom of HCHO (methanal, formaldehyde) is:

 
 
 
 

46. Which of the following has zero dipole moment:

 
 
 
 

47. Dimethyl ether and Ethyl alcohol are called:

 
 
 
 

48. In t-butyl alcohol, the tertiary carbon is bonded to:

 
 
 
 

49. Isomerism exhibited by ethanol and dimethyl ether is:

 
 
 
 

50. Which one of the following is an isomer of Dimetly ether:

 
 
 
 

51. Metamerism is only shown by:

 
 
 
 

52. The isomerism shown by alkanes is:

 
 
 
 

53. The octane number is 100 percent in petroleum:

 
 
 
 

54. How many isomers are there in pentane?

 
 
 
 

55. The number of chain isomers of Pentane are:

 
 
 
 

56. Peat before conversion into coal is converted into:

 
 
 
 

57. Which set of hybrid orbitals has planar triangular shape:

 
 
 
 

58. The Octane number is 100 for:

 
 
 
 

59. Carbon atom in Dimethyl ether is:

 
 
 
 

60. The fractional distillation of petroleum yields only:

 
 
 
 

61. Tetra methyl lead is added to petrol to:

 
 
 
 

62. The boiling point range of petroleum ether is:

 
 
 
 

63. The major components of coal gas are:

 
 
 
 

64. Father of Organic Chemistry is:

 
 
 
 

65. Octane number 100 is given to:

 
 
 
 

66. The carbon atoms in propene are:

 
 
 
 

67. Geometric isomerism is present in:

 
 
 
 

68. Carbon atom in following is Sp² hybridized

 
 
 
 

Short Questions

1. 2-Butyne does not show geometrical isomerism but 2-butene does. Give reasons?
2. A π bond is weaker than a o-bond. Justify it?
3. Burning of candle is spontaneous process. Justify it.
4. Butene does not show geometrical isomerism but 2-Butene does. Give reasons?
5. Catenation is the property which makes carbon different from other elements of the periodic table. Justify it?
6. Classify open chain compounds with examples?
7. Coal is one of the major sources of organic compounds. How do you justify it?
8. Define enthalpy of neutralization with an example.
9. Define Enthalpy of solution and enthalpy of neutralization.
10. Define enthalpy of solution. Give an example.
11. Define standard enthalpy of formation and give two examples.
12. Define tantomerism with an example?
13. Differentiate between endothermic and exothermic reactions.
14. Differentiate between Law of conservation of energy and Hess’s Law.
15. Draw a labeled diagram of Bomb Calorimeter.
16. Draw the structure of C₂H₂ and indicate the bond length and bond angles?
17. Draw the structure of C₂H₄ and indicate the bond lengths and bond angles?
18. Draw the structure of CH₄ and CCI₄,indicating the Sp³- hybridization of central carbon atom?
19. Explain the term enthalpy of atomization.
20. Give at least five compounds which are homocyclic and are carbocyclics but are not aromatic?
21. Give characteristics of homologous series?
22. Give examples of positional isomers in alkenes and alkynes?
23. Give four example of aromatic heterocyclic compounds and two examples of homocyclic aromatic?
24. Give important uses of natural gas?
25. Give the boiling point range(ᵒC) and composition of (a) kerosene (b) naphtha?
26. Give the examples of chain isomers of an alkynes having three chain isomers?
27. Give the products by the cracking of n-butane?
28. Give two example of functional group isomers?
29. How do you define octane number and how it can be improved?
30. How the organic compounds are closely associated with the human body?
31. How the phenmenon isomerism makes the organic compounds greater in number?
32. How the resticted rotation of the cyclic compounds gives birth to the geometrical isomerism?
33. Indicate five fractions which are obrained from destructive distillation of coal?
34. Is it true that ∆H and ∆E have the same values for the reaction taking place in solution state?
35. Mention those compounds of carbon which are not organic in nature?
36. Name the fractions which are obtained by fractional distillation of petroleum?
37. Oranic compounds mostly give slow reactions as compared to inorganic compounds. Give resons?
38. Organic compiunds are mostly non-ionic in character. Give reasons?
39. Prove that ∆E= qv
40. State the Hess’s Law of constant heat summation.
41. What are aromatic hydrocarbons? Give two examples?
42. What are endothermic and exothermic reactions? Give examples.
43. What are thermochemical reactions? Give their types.
44. What do you mean by knocking of petroleum?
45. What is an oil refinery? Mention oil refineries in Pakistan?
46. What is carbonization?
47. What is catalytic cracking?
48. What is cracking of petroleum?Who do we need cracking of petroleum?
49. What is internal energy of a system?
50. What is isomerism?Give the name of four structural isomerism?
51. What is meant by functional group?Name and represent two functional groups containing oxygen?
52. What is metamerism? Give one example?
53. What is petroleum? Give its origin?
54. What is reforming of petroleum?
55. What is spontaneous process? Give two examples.
56. What is state function? Give two examples.
57. What is steam cracking?
58. What is the composition of natural gas?
59. What is the modern definition of organic chemistry and which of the elements other than carbon and hydrogen may be present in organic compounds?
60. What is thermal cracking?
61. What is thermochemical equation? Give two examples.
62. What is thermochemical equation? What information does it convey?
63. What is vital force theory? Who discarded this theory?
64. What iws coal tar? Give its fractions?
65. Which are most important solvents and are used to dissolve organic compounds?
66. Which organic compound was first of all prepared in the laboratory?
67. Why all the bond angles of propane are not equal?
68. Why heat energy is released in exothermic reactions?
69. Why is restricted rotation necessary to show the geometrical isomerism?
70. Why it is necessary to mention the physical states of reactants and products in the thermo-
71. Why the work done by the system is taken as negative?
72. Write isomers of C₄H₁₀?

Long Questions

1. What is an organic compound? Give Importance of Wholer’s work in development of organic chemistry.
2. Why vital force theory was rejected? What is the importance of Wohler’s work it chemistry?
3. Explain any four uses of organic compounds.
4. Define cracking and discuss its different types.
5. Define cracking of petroleum, Explain its various types and importance.
6. Explain reforming of petroleum with the help of suitable example.
7. What is meant by reforming of petroleum? Explain knocking, and octane number in that regards.
8. How organic compounds are classified? Give suitable examples of each type.
9. Differentiate between homocyclic and heterocyclic compounds with two examples each
10. Define functional group. Give names and formulas of oxygen containing containing functional groups.
11. Define Sp³and Sp² hybridization, give one in each case.
12. What is orbital hybridization? Explain mode of hybridization of carbon.
13. What is Sp hybridization? structure of acetylene according to this theory.
14. Define hybridization and also describe sp-hybridization with reference to ethyne..
15. Define atomic orbital hybridization and describe structure of Ethene in the view of atomic orbital hybridization. (
16. Explain Sp hybridization along with describing the structure of Etheneon the basis of this type of hybridization.
17. Explain Sp³ hybridization. How it explain the structure of methane.
18. Describe Structure of C₂Ha and C₂H₂ by process of hybridization.
19. Define any four types of isomerism with one example each.
20. Discuss geometric isomerism with atleast two examples.
21. Describe briefly the different types of structural isomerism.
22. Explain isomerism and its various types with examples.
23. Define isomerism. Discuss (i) Geometrical isomerism (ii)Position isomerism
24. Define alicyclic compounds and aromatic compounds with one example in each case.

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