2nd Year Biology Chapter 24 Evolution Notes MCQs Bank Solution

biology 12th notes chapter 24

1. Flagella may have arisen through the ingestion of prokeryotes similar to spiral shaped bacteria called:


2. Tubes that connect the middle ear with the throat in humans are called


3. Principle of geology was published by


4. Another theory of natural selection other than Darwin was developed by


5. In natural selection, the environment plays role affecting the proportions of gene in


6. Inheritance of acquired characteristics


7. Comparative anatomy


8. The first eukaryotes were appeared about


9. The evolution of aerobic prokaryotes took place due to


10. Darwin came back to Great Britain in


11. The latest fossil found is


12. Similarity in characteristics resulting from common ancestry is known as


13. Descent with modification means


14. According to endosymbiotic theory mitochondria is


15. The study of distribution of living things on earth is called


16. The main reason of the extinction of the species is


17. Book “The Origin of Species” was written by:


18. Which of the following is a fossil?


19. If all the members of a population are homozygous for the same allele then that allele is


20. The 2


21. The study of total aggregate of genes in a population at any one time is known as


22. The gene pool consists of all alleles at all gene loci in all individual of:


23. How many finches did Darwin collect on galapagos island?


24. Functionally alike but structurally different


25. The integration of the principles of genetics and evolution is called as


26. Hardy-Weinberg law is used to measure


27. Hot springs


28. Fossil record shows that the earliest known vertebrate fossils of


29. Number of dominant alleles in this population is


30. The essay “Principle of population” was published by


31. Ear muscles in man


32. Change in the frequency of alleles occurring by chance


33. Fore limbs of man and wings of bat


34. The measure to prevent the extinction of species is


35. Population genetics emphasized on


36. Homozygous


37. The breeding of domesticated plants and animals refers to


38. Among the birds Darwin collected 13 types of:


39. The bacteria living in hydrothermal vent are


40. Vermiform appendix in man is


41. An acquired character is


42. Its frequency is


43. In Hardy Weinberg’s equation i.e., p2 + 2pq + q2 = 1 p-stands for


44. The prokaryotes arise how many years ago?


45. Which of the followings can change allelic frequency?


46. Eukaryotic cells


47. What would be the frequency of heterozygote if the population is in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium?


48. The rudimentary structures that had important functions in ancestors in the remote past are said to be


49. The first eukaryotic cell appeared about how many years ago?


50. How many types of finches did Darwin collect on Galapagos Island?


51. Archaebacteria can tolerate high tomperatures upto


52. The second oldest vertebrate fossil


53. Enough protective ozone was built about how many years ago?


54. The total aggregate gene of population is


55. Endangered species of plants have been recorded to more than


56. Its genotypic frequency will be


57. Hardy-Weinberg’s theorem describes the frequencies of genotype of nonevolving 


58. Match catastrophism with one of the following


59. Fossils


60. The endosymbiont hypothesis was proposed by


61. The first photosynthetic organisms probably used Hydrogen Sulphide as a source of Hydrogen for CO₂ to 


62. Modern synthesis includes


63. The idea of endosymbiont was proposed by


64. Most fossils are found in


65. The theory of natural selection says


66. Lyell published the principles of


67. Who published an essay on “The principle of population”?


68. The species which are near to become endangered are called as


69. The “ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny” supports the evidence from


70. Selection acts directly on


71. The forest of the world have been reduced by


72. The idea of inheritance of acquired character was proposed by


73. The first person who argued with evidences that species have undergone evolution and were not specially created in their present form, was:


74. Ozone is formed from


75. The change in frequency of alleles at a locus that occurs by chance is:


76. In a population that is in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, 16 percent of the individuals show the recessive trait.What is the frequency of the dominant allele in the Population?


77. The smallest biological unit that can evolve over time is


78. Alfred Wallace developed a theory of natural selection essentially identical to


79. The mechanism of evolution called “natural selection” was proposed by


80. H.M.S.Beagle


81. The island near South American coastline is


82. Archaeobacteria


83. In endosymbiont idea, flagella are formed from


84. In man the vestigial organ is:-


85. As per natural selection the survival in struggle for existence is not random.It depends on surviving individuals


86. Which one of the following believes in theory of special creation?


87. According of endosymbiotic theory chlorophyll is


88. Cytochrome


89. Who published papers on inheritance?


90. Evolution is a


91. Match convergent evolution with one of the followings


92. The theory of special creation says


93. The structures which have common origin but different function


94. Biogeography is the geographical distribution of


95. Theory of special creation


96. The theory of natural selection was formulated by


97. In Pakistan among the animals declared extinct is:


98. The oldest known fossils are of:


99. The origin of species


100. The evolution of photosynthetic prokaryotes took place due to


101. The proteins found in all aerobic species are


102. Asian lion


103. 2, the allelic frequency of the heterozygous will be


104. Archeobacteria can tolerate temperature upto


105. The scientist who published Principle of Geology was


106. The chloroplast of the eukaryotes was formed from


107. Essay on the principle of population


108. A group of interbreeding individuals


109. The ultimate source of all changes is:


110. The shuffling of alleles due to meiosis and random fertilization having no effect on over all genetic structure of a population signifies


111. Armadillos, the armored mammals live only in


112. The armored mammal that lives only in America is the:


113. Change in genetic make up


114. Wings of bats


115. Papers on inheritance was published by


116. Acquired Characteristics of an individual cannot be:


117. Which is mismatched for analogous structures?


118. Darwin “Origin of species” was published in:


119. Which of the followings cannot change allelic frequency?


120. The structures which have similarity in function are


121. In allelic frequency P + Q =


122. Emigration and immigration of members of a population, cause disturbance in the: 


123. Galapagos


124. Among the Sclentists who believed in divine creation was


125. Which one of the following is not declared as an extinct species in Pakistan?


126. Match theory of natural selection with one of the followings


127. The oldest known fossils


128. Zoos and botanical gardens are to save species whose extinction is


129. The level of classification between species and family is called as


130. The compound used first by photosynthetic organism as a hydrogen sources was


131. Which is mismatched for homologous structures?


132. Neo Darwinism


133. In human eustachian tubes connect middle ear with


134. 2, the allelic frequency of the recessive trait will be


135. The theory of natural selection was supported by


136. Life can form abiotically only in


137. Edosymbiont hypothesis


138. Which one of the following is endangered in Pakistan?


139. The mammal which live only in America is


140. A respiratory protein which is present in all aerobic species is:


141. Match divergent evolution with one of the following


142. Which of the following is vestigial organ of whale


143. The tropical rain forests have been reduced to what percentage of their original extent?


144. Which of the followings is not a vestigial organ?


145. In terrestrial vertebrates, the gills are modified to form


146. The evolutionary hypothesis that “the prokaryotic cell membrane invaginated to enclose its copy of genetic material” is said to be


Short Questions

1. Define Biogeography?
2. Define Embryology?
3. Define endangered species. What are endangered species? Give examples. Differentiate between endangered and threatened species.
4. Define endosymbiont hypothesis.
5. Define fossil.Where are most of the fossils found?
6. Define genetic drift.
7. Define Hardy Weinberg Theorem and give its equation in the form of binomial expansion.
8. Define population genetics?
9. Define Species?
10. Define the Hardy-Weinberg theorem?
11. Define the term Neo-Darwanism.
12. Define the theory of natural selection?
13. Different between homologous and analogous organs?
14. Differentiate between endangered and threatened species?
15. Differentiate between homologous and analogous organs.
16. Differentiate between homology and analogy.
17. Differentiate between natural selection and artificial selection?
18. Explain “Natural Selection”?
19. Explain “Theory of Special Creation” (Creationism).What are its believers called as?
20. Give an exact definition of evolution (of living beings).What are its believers termed as?
21. How did endosymbiotic development of chloroplasts occur during the evolution of plants?
22. How does fossil record provide evidence of evolution?
23. How natural selection occurs?
24. How were the theories of natural selection of Darwin and Wallace different from each other?
25. Name any five species declared extinct in Pakistan?
26. Name any four factors affecting gene frequency.
27. Name some vestigial structures in man?
28. Name the earliest evolutionist.
29. On what evidences Darwin’s theory of evolution was mainly based?
30. State endosymbiont hypothesis regarding the evolution of eukaryotic cell.Who proposed this hypothesis?
31. State/define theory of special creation.
32. What are Fossils?
33. What are Homologous structures?
34. What are hydrothermal vents?
35. What are hydrothermal vents? How do they support life?
36. What are vestigial organs? Name some important vestigial organs of man. What are vestigial organs? Give one example
37. What Darwin said about Finches of Galapagos?
38. What did Lamarck said about the use and disuse of organs?
39. What does biogeography mean?
40. What does evolution refer?
41. What does indicate that prokaryotes are ancestors of all life?
42. What factors affect the gene frequency?
43. What is Gene pool?
44. What is genetic drift?
45. What is hardy-Weinberg equation used for?
46. What is modern synthesis/ Neo-Darwinism? Give the concept of Neo-Darwinism.
47. What is Molecular Biology?
48. What is Neodarwinism?
49. What is population?
50. What is Spirochete?
51. What is struggle for existence’ in Darwin’s theory of evolution?
52. What is the Concept of Evolution?
53. What is the Concept of special creation?
54. What is the contribution of Georges Cuvier in biology?
55. What is the important turning point for evolutionary theory?
56. What is the main difference between the theories of Lamarck and Darwin regarding organic evolution?
57. What the name was of eh islands which Darwin visited during his voyage and which were inhabited by finches?
58. What was Darwin’s is idea of Origin of Species?
59. What was Lamarck’s theory regarding evolution based on? When was it presented?
60. What was teh second idea of Lamarck called?
61. What was the contribution of Wallace in the development of theory of natural selection?
62. What was the name of the ship on which Darwin performed voyage, in which capacity?
63. What was the source of hydrogen for reducing CO₂ in first photosynthetic organisms?
64. What was the statement or theorem of Hardy-Weinberg?
65. When and where was Charles Darwin born?
66. When did eukaryotes evolve?
67. When was life made possible on land and how?
68. Where are most of the fossils found?
69. Which are the two hypotheses regarding the evolution of the eukaryotic cell?
70. Which armored mammals are distributed only in America?
71. Which group of bacteria can tolerate temperature up to 120°C?
72. Which idea is known as endosymbiont hypothesis?
73. Which mating is called a non-random mating?
74. Which organisms originated first, prokaryotes or eukaryotes and when?
75. Which were the first photosynthetic organisms? Which raw materials were used by them for photosynthesis?
76. Who published the book “Principles of Geology”?
77. Who published the essay on the “Principle of Population”?
78. Who was Darwin’s predecessor who developed a comprehensive model that attempted to explain how life evolves?
79. Write the name of theories of evolution presented by Lamarck and Darwin.

Long Questions

1. Describe evidence of evolution by comparative anatomy.
2. Describe the evidences of evolution from biogeography and fossil record.
3. Describe the evidences of evolution from comparative anatomy and molecular biology.
4. Describe the evidences of evolution from comparative embryology and molecular biology.
5. Discuss evolution from prokaryotes to eukaryotes.
6. Discuss the evolution from prokaryote to eukaryote.
7. Explain briefly about natural selection and adaptation.
8. Explain Darwin theory of natural selection.
9. Explain endosymbiont hypothesis for origin of eukaryotic cells.
10. Explain Hardy Weinberg Theorem?
11. Explain the theory inheritance of acquired characteristics.
12. How comparative embryology support the process of evolution. Describe comparative embryology and molecular biology as an evidence of evolution.
13. State different factors affecting the gene frequency.
14. State the different factors affecting gene frequency.
15. What two main points are given by Darwin in his book The Origin of Species? Describe in detail.
16. Write a note on endangered species with their methods of conservation.
17. Write a note on Hardy Weinberg theorem.

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