2nd Year Biology Chapter 19 Growth and Development Notes

biology 12th notes chapter 19

1. Cambium


2. Regeneration by dedifferentiated cells takes place in


3. Meristems are young tissues or group of cells that retain the potential to


4. The zone present at a little distance from the apex is


5. The negative physiological changes in the body are


6. The cells which have ability to divide are


7. The biologists performed experiments on induction


8. If plants are grown in dark, it faces the deficiency of


9. The discoidal cap of celis above the blastocoele is called:


10. The pigment free area of egg is called


11. Salamander can regenerate


12. Match cambium with one the followings


13. Secondary growth leads to an increase in the diameter of the:


14. During the development of chick, somites are formed after


15. The condition in which individuals have small skull:


16. Arthritis and arteriosclerosis


17. Zygote of which animal Spemann divided into two equal halves with the help of minute ligature of human hair?


18. Movement and rearrangement of the cells in the embryo is called


19. The removal of apex releases the lateral buds from the apical dominance.It is called


20. The pigmented free area that appears at the time of fertilization is called:


21. During elongation the cell volume increases upto 150 times due to uptake of


22. Xylem and phloem are formed in


23. Which of the following hormones produces inhibitory effect in apical dominance?


24. Which light enhance cell division and   and cell enlargements


25. The meristem present at the tip of roots is


26. Tetrogens are


27. The upper area with translucent appearance is


28. Selection of genes is done by


29. Which of the followings can slow down the process of aging?


30. Organogenesis


31. The growth, in which length of plant increases, is


32. The presumptive endoderm is


33. Environmental factors causing abnormal development are grouped together as


34. Determinants


35. Neurula


36. Which of the followings is irrelevant for growth and development?


37. Lobster can regenerate only


38. The growth, in which width of plant increases, is


39. The scientist who worked on Acetabularia is


40. Haemmerling performed experiments on


41. The size of Acetabularia may be upto several centimeters, though it has


42. Clear cytoplasm produces:


43. from how many celled embryo did Spemann observed that, if a single cell is separated, it contains a complete set of genes and forms a complete embryo?


44. Area pellucida


45. The growth of root is


46. During cell division the number of cells increase by


47. Thimann and Skoog


48. The neurula is the stage in which embryo has


49. The temperature 25-30 C


50. Vitamins are the organic compounds synthesized within the plant bodies in the presence of


51. The phenomenon which inhibits the sprouting of lateral bud is


52. The internal factor for growth is


53. The larval epidermis is formed from


54. Regeneration in plant is confined to


55. Increase in cell volume


56. Xylem and phloem are formed in


57. The cambium is formed in


58. The condition of small skull is


59. Differentiation means


60. A condition in which palatine processes of maxilla and palatine fail to fuse is:


61. Primary growth in plants is caused by


62. During elongation the cell volume increases up to:


63. Intercalary meristems are situated at


64. Primary growth


65. The study of human populations and things that affect them is called:


66. When a piece of ectoderm was removed from Frog’s embryo, it was unable to form normal


67. The branch which deals with the study of abnormal structures is


68. Match harelip with one of the followings


69. In the chick of 18 hour, the structure formed is


70. The stage of embryo with segmented cavity is called


71. During gastrulation epiblast and hypoblast are two layers of


72. The intercalary meristem is


73. Indeterminate growth is


74. The plant hormone that inhibit the growth of lateral shoots:


75. Which of the following factors supply energy during growth?


76. The syndrome which leads to tallness and aggressiveness is


77. The negative physiological changes in our body are called


78. In 18 hours embryo, it is the most prominent structure


79. Metabolic activity and growth cannot take place in absence of


80. The formation of cells of pith, cortex and vascular bundle is


81. The study of aging is called


82. Yellow cytoplasm


83. It gives rise to muscle cells


84. Optimum temperature for growth of plants is:


85. Experiments on Acetabulum were performed by


86. At the cephalic end of primitive streak, closely packed cells form a local thickening known as


87. Closely packed cells at cephalic end of primitive streak form a local thickening called


88. The cavity formed between somatic and splanchnic mesoderm is


89. Chick hatches


90. Acetabularia is an/a:


91. In 24 hours embryo, the folding of neural plate is clearly visible in


92. The shell of chick egg is secreted as egg passes through


93. Match tetrogen with the deficiency of one of the following


94. The mesodermal cells do not invaginate but migrate medially and caudally from both sides and create a midline thickening called:


95. In microcephaly, the individuals are born with small


96. what causes apical dominance by diffusing from the apical bud which inhibits the growth of lateral buds?


97. The primary organizer is


98. The scientist who worked on sea urchin embryo was


99. Immediately after fertilization, the egg undergoes a series of mitotic dlvisions called: 


100. The hormone which releases inhibitory effect is


101. This is the condition in which one of the sex chromosome is missing


102. Which of the followings form body muscles?


103. The human life span is judged to be maximum of


104. Larval epidermins is produced by


105. The meristem present at the base of internodes is


106. This alga has a long stalk with an umbrella shaped cap at its top and rhizoids, attached to the ground


107. Blastula


108. Grey equatorial cytoplasm gives rise to:


109. Yellow cytoplasm gives rise to


110. A series of mitotic divisions which take place in a zygote are called


111. Man can regenerate


112. Haemophilia is caused due to abnormalities in


113. The layers of blastula are


114. The part of cytoplasm which form notochord is


115. Which of the followings possesses the greatest power of regeneration?


116. The primitive groove is marked on both sides of the embryo by


117. The growth of flowers is


118. Apical Dominance is caused by:


119. The leaf primordial cells form which of the following organ?


120. Regeneration


121. The developmental stage in which germ layers are formed;


122. The light which favours elongation of cells is


123. Which of the followings is external factor in growth?


124. Earth worm can regenerate


125. Lizard can regenerate


126. Meristems found at the tips of root and shoot are called


127. The progressive changes which are undergone before an organism acquiresits adult form constitute


128. The mesodermal cells migrate medially and caudally to form


129. Grey vegetal cytoplasm gives rise to Muscle 


130. Neural groove is formed after


131. Match growth correlations with one of the following


132. The rounded closely packed mass of blastomere is


133. The peripheral part of blastoderm is called


134. Anything which interferes with the normal process of development is the factor causing:


135. Spemann performed experiments on


136. The cavity formed between somatic and splanchnic mesoderm is:


Short Questions

1. Are the cleavage divisions of the zygote regular or irregular?
2. Briefly describe the external and internal factors that affect growth in plants.
3. Define abnormal development?
4. Define aging and write its symptoms.
5. Define cellular differentiation in plants.
6. Define Cleavage?
7. Define differentiation?
8. Define embryology?
9. Define embryonic induction?
10. Define gastrulation in chick.
11. Define Gastrulation?
12. Define growth correlations.
13. Define growth?
14. Define neurocoel, blastocoel and gastrocoel.
15. Define optimum temperature.What is the range of optimum temperature for plant growth?
16. Define organizer and inducer substance. What are primary organizer and inducer substances?
17. Define regeneration with examples.
18. Define teratology and teratogens?
19. Differentiate between area pellucida and area opacca.
20. Differentiate between gerontology and teratology.
21. Differentiate between growth and development?
22. Differentiate between inhibitory and compensatory effects?
23. Differentiate between morula and blastula.
24. Differentiate between primary and secondary growth.
25. Due to what factors normal process of development is disturbed?
26. Explain cleavage?
27. Give definition of growth correlation?
28. Give the name of the two sheets like layers into which mesoderm splits and name the cavity formed between these. Differentiate between somatic and splanchnic mesoderm.
29. How do final size of cells of cortex and tracheids is attained in zone of maturation?
30. How does quality of light affect the growth in plants?
31. How does the intensity of light affect the growth?
32. How does the rate of growth differ throughout the life of an organism?
33. How many layers the lateral plate mesoderm is splitted into?
34. How neural plate is formed?
35. How neural tube is formed in chick embryo?
36. How notochord is formed in chick embryo?
37. How primitive streak in formed?
38. In which directions do the fibers and the tracheid’s of shoots and roots elongate during their growth?
39. In which ways does light influence growth in plants?
40. Name the different meristems in plants and their location.
41. Name the environmental factors which influence the growth rate in plants?
42. Name the factors by which rate of growth is influenced?
43. Name the stages of developmental processes of animals.
44. Of all the environmental factors which ones are the most important for controlling growth and development of plants?
45. State dedifferentiation of cells.
46. State the role of gray vegetal and grey equatorial cytoplasm.
47. What are growing points?
48. What are Intercalary Meristems?
49. What are Lateral Meristems?
50. What are meristems (growing points)?
51. What are neoblasts?
52. What are neuropores?
53. What are Teratogens?
54. What are the daughter cells formed by initial cleavage divisions of the zygote known as?
55. What are the phases (zones) of growth of the shoot and the root?
56. What did Thimann and Skoog conclude about apical dominance in 1934?
57. What do you mean by open growth?
58. What internal factors influence plant growth?
59. What is Acetabularia?
60. What is Apical Meristem?
61. What is area opaca?
62. What is area pellucida?
63. What is blastocoel in the embryo of chick?
64. What is blastoderm?
65. What is Blastula?
66. What is cleft palate?
67. What is coelom?
68. What is correlation?
69. What is discoidal cleavage?
70. What is embryology?
71. What is gastrocoel and from which germ layer it is originated?
72. What is gastrocoele?
73. What is Germ wall?
74. What is Henson’s node? Give its role.
75. What is meant by discoidal cleavage?
76. What is meristem?
77. Name its types based on position. Describe various types of meristems.
78. What is microcephaly?
79. What is Morula?
80. What is Neurlation?
81. What is neurocoel?
82. What is Neurula?
83. What is neurula? What is neurocoel?
84. What is open growth?
85. What is present goal of gerontology?
86. What is primary induction?
87. What is primitive node?
88. What is Primitive streak?
89. What is secondary growth?
90. What is the difference between epiblast and hypoblast?
91. What is the difference between inhibitory effect and compensatory effect?
92. What is the difference between the primary and the secondary growth?
93. What is the relationship between the apical dominance and the cytokinins?
94. What is the role of cytokinins in apical dominance?
95. What is the role of intercalary meristems?
96. What is the temperature for incubation for chick eggs?
97. What is zone of junction in developing chick embryo?
98. What was the work of Thimann and Skoog?
99. What was work of Dietrish?
100. When is the egg shell secreted in the hens?
101. Where does cell division occur most intensively and where does most rapid increase in the size of cells occur in the apical regions of the shoots and the roots?
102. Which process is defined as negative physiological changes?
103. Which tissue of the plant initiates secondary growth?
104. Which tissues of the plant initiate primary growth?
105. Which two layers are formed from blastoderm during gastrulation?
106. Write down the names of different kinds of cytoplasm’s with their functions.
107. Write down the range of temperature which can influence the rate of plant growth?

Long Questions

1. Define abnormal development. Explain different factors causing abnormalities?
2. Define abnormal development.Explain different factors causing abnormalities. Write a note on abnormal development.
3. Describe external factors that influence growth rate in plants.
4. Describe its causes and symptoms.
5. Describe the phenomenon of growth correlation.
6. Describe the process of regeneration in various animals.
7. Describe the role of nucleus in development.
8. Discuss different phases of plants growth.
9. Explain embryonic induction.
10. Explain the role of nucleus in development. Describe the role of nucleus in development.
11. What is aging? Explain this process.
12. What is growth? Discuss different phases of growth in plants. Discuss different phases of plant growth.
13. Write a note on Neurulation in Chick.
14. Write a note on regeneration.
15. Write detailed note on regeneration. Define and explain regeneration.

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