2nd Year Biology Chapter 16 Support and Movement Notes

biology 12th notes chapter 16

1. The stiffness of muscle tissue in rigor mortis partially results from

 
 
 
 

2. The bones of lower arm are

 
 
 
 

3. Secondary growth in plants begins with the formation of

 
 
 
 

4. The spinal degeneration and deformity of the joints of two or more vertebraethat commonly occurs with aging causes

 
 
 
 

5. Within a sarcomere how many thin filament are arrayed around each thickfilament

 
 
 
 

6. Which of the following does not occur in a muscle during contraction? 

 
 
 
 

7. Which of the following is the best description of cardiac muscle? 

 
 
 
 

8. The bones of the wrist are called

 
 
 
 

9. A tissue whose function is support and it performs that function while it isdead is

 
 
 
 

10. A single motor neuron may innervate as few as 3-5 fibers in muscles of the

 
 
 
 

11. The living cells of cartilage are called  

 
 
 
 

12. The purpose of the rib cage is to

 
 
 
 

13. The intervertebral disks which absorb shock and assist in limited movementof disks

 
 
 
 

14. The movement in response to stimulus of touch i-e climbing Vines is called:

 
 
 
 

15. Hinge joint is present between

 
 
 
 

16. Both bones and cartilage consist of living cells embedded in the matrix of protein known as:

 
 
 
 

17. What makes bones so strong? 

 
 
 
 

18. The visible number of vertebrae in human vertebral column is

 
 
 
 

19. A muscle which moves a body part away from the mid line of the body is

 
 
 
 

20. The portion of the xylem that is conducting water and minerals and hasn’tstarted storing waste products is

 
 
 
 

21. The tooth bearing bone of lower jaw is

 
 
 
 

22. Digigrade mammals tend to walk on their:

 
 
 
 

23. Cork is waterproof because its cell walls are impregnated with

 
 
 
 

24. The smallest contractile unit of skeletal muscle is a

 
 
 
 

25. The original number of vertebrae in human vertebral column is

 
 
 
 

26. The contraction of each muscle is based on  

 
 
 
 

27. Thin myofilaments are composed of two helically of a globular protein know as

 
 
 
 

28. Which animals shows Digitigrade mode of locomotion?

 
 
 
 

29. A skeletal muscle cell

 
 
 
 

30. Tropic movement in response to touch is known as

 
 
 
 

31. The jointed surfaces of bones are covered with

 
 
 
 

32. Xylem vessels have walls impregnated with

 
 
 
 

33. What is the total body weight of human skeleton? 

 
 
 
 

34. Which bone in man is concerned with locomotion? 

 
 
 
 

35. Muscles that straighten two bones at joints are called extensors.What is thename for muscles that cause two bones to bend at joints? 

 
 
 
 

36. Which of the following is not part of the axial skeleton? 

 
 
 
 

37. The loss of bone density which can cause bones to become light, brittle andeasily broken is called

 
 
 
 

38. The cell wall of sclerenchymatous cell are usually impregnated with

 
 
 
 

39. What is a joint? 

 
 
 
 

40. The major regulatory proteins in muscle tissue are

 
 
 
 

41. Humerus forms a ball and socket joint with

 
 
 
 

42. The sleep movements of plants fall under the category often

 
 
 
 

43. The walls of hollow organs and some blood vessels contain this muscle tissue

 
 
 
 

44. The flowers of Oxalis and Portulaca open in the day and close at night.It iscalled

 
 
 
 

45. Muscles are attached to bones by

 
 
 
 

46. How many bones are there on the average in human body? 

 
 
 
 

47. This process aids in skeletal muscle relaxation after contraction

 
 
 
 

48. A single somatic motor neuron and the group of muscle fibers innervated byit is

 
 
 
 

49. Gliding joints are present between

 
 
 
 

50. A hardened outer surface to which internal muscles can be attached is:

 
 
 
 

51. Collagen fibers of bone are hardened by the deposit of:

 
 
 
 

52. Besides the brain, the skull also protects

 
 
 
 

53. Cross bridges form between

 
 
 
 

54. The walls of digestive tract and blood vessels are made up of this muscle tissue

 
 
 
 

55. In earthworm contraction of which muscles shortens the body. 

 
 
 
 

56. Bicep muscles are

 
 
 
 

57. The whole body of Bryophyta is made up of

 
 
 
 

58. The movement of a plant in response to a touch or contact is

 
 
 
 

59. During muscular contraction

 
 
 
 

60. The folded leaflets of sensitive Mimosa regain their turgidity after:

 
 
 
 

61. The joint that allows the skull to rotate on our spine is called

 
 
 
 

62. Positive gravitropism of root is due to

 
 
 
 

63. Approximately what percentage of body heat is generated by muscle tissue? 

 
 
 
 

64. The upper surface of leaves in bud condition shows MORE GROWTH:

 
 
 
 

65. Movement of plant organs in response to touch is called:

 
 
 
 

66. The muscle tissue that can be consciously controlled is

 
 
 
 

67. Which bone protects brain? 

 
 
 
 

68. Which one of these makes bones hard? 

 
 
 
 

69. Total number of ribs in your axial skeleton is

 
 
 
 

70. In which skeletal deformity pain is felt in the lower back, buttock, and/orvarious parts of the leg and foot

 
 
 
 

71. Exoskeleton in Diatoms is made up of

 
 
 
 

72. The pelvic girdle is composed of three pairs of fused bones

 
 
 
 

73. It covers the plant but is replaced by

 
 
 
 

74. The membrane that bounds vacuole is called:

 
 
 
 

75. In human back bone the caudal vertebrae are reduced to 4 in number andare fused to form the

 
 
 
 

76. The xylem in the center of the tree that has stopped conducting water andminerals and is storing waste products from the plant is

 
 
 
 

77. How do muscles attached to the bones move the body? 

 
 
 
 

78. An adult human endoskeleton consists of

 
 
 
 

79. Thick myofilaments are composed of several hundred molecules of a proteinknown as

 
 
 
 

80. The joint found between the flat bones of the skull is classified as

 
 
 
 

81. Lenticels are necessary for

 
 
 
 

82. Chondroblasts produce

 
 
 
 

83. Movement shown by sperms of livenworts, mosses, ferns towards archegonia is a:

 
 
 
 

84. The main protein in the matrix of cartilage is

 
 
 
 

85. A mass of clotted blood that forms at the fracture site is called:

 
 
 
 

86. The proteins at the junction between sarcomeres form the

 
 
 
 

87. The process of moulting is controlled by the nervous system and a hormone called:

 
 
 
 

88. Skeletal muscle is described by all of the following except

 
 
 
 

89. Which of the following is unique to cardiac muscle tissue? 

 
 
 
 

90. The state of physiological inability of a muscle to contract due toaccumulation of lactic acid is referred to as

 
 
 
 

91. A disk-like protein which is centrally located in sarcomeres is

 
 
 
 

92. Which condition is shown in following diagram? 

 
 
 
 

93. The inactive non-conducting wood is called

 
 
 
 

94. The unspecialized packing tissue found in epidermis, cortex and pith is

 
 
 
 

95. Mature bone cell is called as:

 
 
 
 

96. The total number of bones in your right arm is

 
 
 
 

97. Which of the following groupings is incorrect? 

 
 
 
 

98. Which type of joint is the most mobile? 

 
 
 
 

99. What is the difference between cartilage and bone? 

 
 
 
 

100. A muscle which moves a body part towards the mid line of the body is

 
 
 
 

101. The hollow space in the middle of bones is filled with

 
 
 
 

102. The shoulder girdle consists of two bones

 
 
 
 

103. The movement in jelly fish is called

 
 
 
 

104. In earthworm contraction of which muscles lengthens the body. 

 
 
 
 

105. Tricep muscles are

 
 
 
 

106. The living cells of cartilage are called

 
 
 
 

107. Action of the Venus fly trap is

 
 
 
 

108. In birds, the sternum is modified to form:

 
 
 
 

109. Most efficien way of supporting the body is seen in:

 
 
 
 

110. Which of the following actions is caused by skeletal muscle? 

 
 
 
 

111. Hyponsty caused due to:

 
 
 
 

112. Molluscs have an exoskeleton in the form of

 
 
 
 

113. Turgor pressure is generated by high osmotic pressure of the cell

 
 
 
 

114. Digitigrade mammals tend to walk on their:

 
 
 
 

115. Bone forming cells are known as:

 
 
 
 

116. Movement takes place at

 
 
 
 

117. What is the difference between compact bone and spongy bone? 

 
 
 
 

118. Is ungulgrade

 
 
 
 

119. The process of bone formation is called

 
 
 
 

120. Changes in sarcomere length are caused by the filaments being pulled alongthe thick filaments in the direction of the

 
 
 
 

121. Collenchyma can be distinguished from parenchyma by

 
 
 
 

122. These cells are located in bone tissue

 
 
 
 

123. Human eye muscles contract in

 
 
 
 

124. Bundie cape in sunflower stem, are formed by:

 
 
 
 

125. Resistance to decay and insect attack to plants is provided by  

 
 
 
 

126. Inflammation of the joint is known as

 
 
 
 

127. The lower two pairs of ribs are

 
 
 
 

128. Which of the following statements is incorrect? 

 
 
 
 

129. Which of the following cells have angular thickening in their primary walls:

 
 
 
 

130. This type of wood is most resistant to decay and insect attack:

 
 
 
 

131. The limb bones first appeared in

 
 
 
 

132. What is the function of a tendon? 

 
 
 
 

133. What is directional movement response that occurs in response to adirectional stimulus is called? 

 
 
 
 

134. The periodic shedding of exoskeleton in arthropods is known as

 
 
 
 

135. Bones are joined to each other at joints by

 
 
 
 

136. When an action potential reaches the presynaptic terminal of the motorneuron then

 
 
 
 

137. The contraction of muscles depends upon

 
 
 
 

138. The word tropic is derived from Greek word Tropos meaning

 
 
 
 

139. The type of nastic movement, which occurs in response to contacts called: Photonasty

 
 
 
 

140. The growth of the pollen tube always towards the ovules, is due to

 
 
 
 

141. The plantigrade animals used to walk on their:

 
 
 
 

142. Skeletal muscle is described by all of the following except

 
 
 
 

143. What is the skeletal system? 

 
 
 
 

144. A muscle of fascicle is a? 

 
 
 
 

145. The stationary part of skeletal muscle is know as

 
 
 
 

146. The collenchyma and sclerenchyma are with heavily lignified cells in:

 
 
 
 

147. Tetany characteristically is considered to be result of a sever degree of

 
 
 
 

148. Movement of Railway creeper around any rope is an example of

 
 
 
 

149. The 12 vertebrae in the second curve of vertebral column are known as

 
 
 
 

150. Haptonastic movements occur in response to:

 
 
 
 

151. The bicep and tricep muscles are found in

 
 
 
 

152. The curve in the neck is composed of seven vertebrae and is know as the

 
 
 
 

153. In Angiosperma the tissue that produces secondary xylem and secondaryphloem is

 
 
 
 

154. Opining of Flower Bud Follows:

 
 
 
 

155. Lack of acetylcholinesterease in the synaptic cleft would result in

 
 
 
 

156. The bone dissolving cells are called

 
 
 
 

157. Muscles are made of

 
 
 
 

Short Questions

1. Are the collenchymatous and sclerenchymatous cells living or dead?
2. Characterize collenchyma cells.
3. Compare hinge joint with ball and socket joint.
4. Compare phototropism and geotropism.
5. Define antagonistic movement of muscles.
6. Define Chemotropism?
7. Define ecdysis. What is the process of ecdysis .
8. Define Epinasty?
9. Define Geotropism or Gravitropism?
10. Define haptonastic movement.
11. Define Hydrotropism?
12. Define Hyponasty?
13. Define Nutation?
14. Define Photonasty?
15. Define Phototropism?
16. Define sacromere?
17. Define secondary growth?
18. Define skeleton.
19. Define Tactic Movements?
20. Define Thermonasty?
21. Define Thigmotropism?
22. Define turgor pressure.What is its importance?
23. Describe thermo nasty and quote examples?
24. Describe vessels or tracheae.
25. Differentiate between bone and cartilage.
26. Differentiate between compact bone and spongy bone.Give only two differences.
27. Differentiate between fibers and sclereids.
28. Differentiate between fibers and sclerides?
29. Differentiate between heartwood and sapwood.
30. Differentiate between ligament and tendon.
31. Differentiate between origin and insertion of muscle.
32. Differentiate between Osteoporosis and Osteomalcia.
33. Differentiate between photo tactic and chemotactic movements?
34. Differentiate between sclerenchyma and collenchyma cells.
35. Differentiate between skeletal and smooth muscles.
36. Differentiate between the exoskeleton and the endoskeleton?
37. Differentiate between troponin and tropomyosin.
38. Differentiate between turgor and growth movements?
39. Differentiate between vessel and tracheids.
40. Differentiates between sapwood and heartwood.
41. Discuss hematoma formation.
42. Discuss two main types of cartilage.
43. Distinguish between axial skeleton and appendicular skeleton.
44. Distinguish between the phototactic and chemotactic movements. What is phototactic movement? What is chemotactic movement?
45. Enlist some of the functions of skeleton.
46. Explain callus (or wood tissue).
47. Explain two types of nastic movements. Compare epinasty and hyponasty.
48. Give an example of chemotactic movements?
49. Give definition of secondary growth in plants.
50. How callus is formed?
51. How can the age of a tree be known?
52. How is turgor pressure generated in a plant cell?
53. How many steps are involved in repairing of broken bones?Also name them?
54. In how many categories joints are classified?Name them.
55. Name a naturally occurring auxin?
56. Name the different types of cells associated with bones.
57. Name the kinds of skeleton in animals?
58. Name the supporting tissues in plants?
59. Quote an example of photo tactic movements?
60. What are Autonomic movements.Also give their main types?
61. What are auxins? How do they affect plant movements?
62. What are chondrocytes?
63. What are cross bridges?
64. What are digitigrades?
65. What are Fibers or Tracheids?
66. What are growth Movements?
67. What are main types of movements in plants?
68. What are Mesophytes?
69. What are Nastic movements?
70. What are plantigrade and unguligrade? What are plantigrade, digitigrade and unguligrade mammals?
71. What are Sclereids?
72. What are sleep movements in plants?
73. What are synovial joints?
74. What are tactic movements?
75. What are the sources of energy for muscle contraction?
76. What are tracheid’s and where are they found?
77. What are Tropic movements?
78. What are vessels or Trachea?
79. What do you mean by paratonic movements?
80. What do you understand from”Rigor Mortis?
81. What does growth ring indicates?
82. What does positive and negative tactic movements mean?
83. What is axial skeleton?
84. What is Bundle cap?
85. What is Callus or wood tissue?
86. What is cartilage?
87. What is chemotactic Movement?
88. What is difference between animal and plant movements?
89. What is effective and recovery stroke? Differentiate between effective and recovery stroke.
90. What is foreman triosseum? What is foreman triosseum? How it is formed?
91. What is function of heart wood?
92. What is herniation of discs? Define disc-slip. What are the causes of herniation of discs?
93. What is hydroskeleton or hydrostatic skeleton?
94. What is hydrostatic skeleton and in which animals is it found?
95. What is meant by passive and active flight? Differentiate between active and passive flight.
96. What is Nyctinasty?
97. What is Phototactic Movement?
98. What is rickets? Give its causes and cure. How is rickets produced?
99. What is Sapwood and heartwood?
100. What is sciatica and its causes?
101. What is Skeleton?
102. What is spondylosis?
103. What is the animal skeleton usually composed of?
104. What is the difference between exoskeleton and endoskeleton? What is the composition of exoskeleton?
105. What is the difference between tetanus and muscle tetany?
106. What is the hematoma formation?
107. What is the hyaline cartilage?
108. What is the membrane surrounding the vacuole known as?
109. What is the role of vascular cambium?
110. What is tonoplast?
111. What is turgor movement?
112. What is Turgor pressure?
113. What provides support in plants and animals?
114. Where red and white blood cells are commonly manufactured in the mammals?
115. Which meristems are involved in secondary growth?
116. Which plant hormone brings about hyponasty?
117. Why heart muscles are known as cardiac muscles?

Long Questions

1. Compare the characteristics of smooth, cardiac and skeleton muscles.
2. Describe locomotion in air.
3. Describe the adaptations in fishes for locomotion in aquatic environment.
4. Describe the moulting and its different stages.
5. Describe the significance of secondary growth.
6. Describe the tropic movements in plants. Give its different types.
7. Describe tropic movement in plants.
8. Discuss ad explain briefly the fibrous, cartilaginous and synovial joints.
9. Discuss the arrangement of vertebrae in vertebral column.Also describe rib cage.
10. Explain about exoskeleton in Arthropods.
11. Explain the process of repair of broken bones.
12. Explain the role of Calcium ions in the process of Sliding Filament Model.
13. Give a detailed note on sliding filament model.
14. Give an account of autonomic movement in plants.
15. Give an account of paratonic movement in plants.
16. Give the arrangement of vertebrae in vertebral column.
17. Give the structure of muscle.
18. How energy provided for muscles contraction?
19. What are joints? Describe their types.
20. What are the adaptations in birds for flying?
21. What are the joints? Describe their types. Define and explain briefly the fibrous, cartilaginous and synovial joints.
22. What is endoskeleton? Describe bone and cartilage.
23. What is exoskeleton? What are its limitations? How were they overcome?
24. What is Sliding Filament Model of muscle contraction? What does it explain?
25. Write a note on Axial skeleton.
26. Write a note on human appendicular skeleton.
27. Write down the mechanism of muscle contraction.

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