2nd Year Biology Chapter 15 Homeostasis Notes MCQs Bank Solution

biology 12th notes chapter 15

1. Vasodilation


2. Two counter-current systems are formed in the kidney by the


3. Arginase splits the arginine to form urea and


4. In ectotherms and endotherms heat can be lost through


5. Number of Ammonia molecules required to produce one molecule of urea is:


6. Uric acid


7. The protection of internal environment from the harms of the fluctuation in external environment is termed as 


8. Which part of the plant body serves as excretophore?


9. Tubular structure which carries urine from bladder to outside


10. Dialyzer


11. Cholesterol is excreted in the


12. The major homeostatic function of liver is to synthesize:


13. Separation of amino acid into amino and carboxyl group is know as


14. Oxalates are present in


15. In humans, excess nitrogen is eliminated form the body by mainly convertingit to


16. Tubular excretory system of earth worm consists of


17. The most toxic nitrogenous waste in animals is


18. Homeostasis ithe s process of maintaining a constant environment despite conditions


19. Which one of the following has maximum toxicity? 


20. It is technique of breaking stones inside kidneys, ureters and urinary bladder


21. The contractile vacuole of a paramecium should be active when theparamecium is in


22. Nitrogenous base


23. Mammals maintain their body temperature within a range of


24. Which one of the following has medium toxicity? 


25. A capillary tuft from which fluid leaves the circulatory system


26. Protonephridium is found incavity


27. What are the components of feed back mechanism? 


28. A pair of kidneys consists of millions of functional units called:


29. Reptile


30. About percent of kidney stones composed of uric acid


31. Non-shivering thermogenesis is


32. Animals that do not adjust their internal osmoregularity and are isotonicwith their environment are


33. The chief nitrogenous waste in birds and reptiles is


34. The number of nephrons in ONE kidney of man is


35. The excretory organs of Planaria are known as


36. Metabolic water is


37. Animals that are not isotonic with their environment and have developedmechanisms to regulate their internal solute and water concentrations are


38. ADH increases ——— of ———–from the collecting duct


39. 1 g of ammonia nitrogen requires how much water for excretion


40. Conversion of ammonia into urea, occurs in


41. Collecting duct


42. Liver Synthesizes


43. The liver is


44. Unlike an earthworm, metanephridia in mammalian nephrone


45. Lithotripsy


46. The incidence of Calcium Phosphate stones in human are:


47. Metabolism of purine and pyrimidine produces significance amount of:


48. Mango plant is


49. Antidiuretic hormone is also called


50. In mammalian kidney, the pyramids are seen in


51. The animals that generate their own body heat through heat production as by product during metabolism are called


52. The mechanism of evaporative cooling in respiratory tract of dog is known as


53. It is a cyclic process of enzymatic reactions which operates in the liver cells asa result of which urea is formed from ammonia, carbondioxide and NH2 group


54. Plants excrete


55. Ultrafiltration occurs in


56. An increase in blood sugar level triggers the release of the hormone insulin bthe pancreas, the hormone insulin lowers blood sugar level restoring thebody to its original blood glucose level by converting glucose to glycogen.This is an example of


57. Which one is example of Xerophytes?


58. Pigments found in bile are formed during catabolism


59. The rate of heat production is increased by increasing muscle contraction, by movement it is called


60. Displace the set point of hypothalamus above the normal point of 37°C


61. Haemodialysis means


62. Thermoreceptors


63. Movement of ground squirrel to burrows in midday heat is an


64. Osmoconformers? 


65. Ph of human urine is


66. Flame cells are part of excretory system of:


67. Xerophytes have


68. Lack of vasopressin hormone causes:


69. The excretory product that requires maximum water for its removal is:


70. Which one of the following is heterotherm?


71. Osmosis is defined as


72. Nephron


73. The nephron is


74. The vertebrate liver functions in all the following regulatory processes except


75. Urea can be eliminated with quantity of water as compared to ammonia


76. Urea is produced in


77. Which process in the nephrone is least selective? 


78. Diluted solution compared to the cell concentration is termed as


79. Structural adaptation


80. The fishes which drink large amount of seas water and excrete concentrated urine are:


81. In urea cycle, one molecule of Amonia and one molecule of co2>/sub>combine with one molecule of ornithine to form


82. Which of the following is an Endothem?


83. Saliva and urine are used for evaporating cooling by


84. Each kidney is enclosed by a thin membranous covering called


85. All the collecting tubules of human kidney finally open into the


86. The incidence of calcium oxalate type stones are


87. The process by which some poisonous substances are secreted fromperitubular capillaries into nephric filtrate is termed as


88. The excretory system of Planaria called


89. Daily urine output of man is


90. Incidence of uric acid stone is:


91. Which of the following activity is regulated by homeostasis? 


92. Which one is not a mesophyte?


93. Homeostasis is based on


94. Fresh water fish


95. Uric acid is the chief nitrogenous waste material in the excretory system of


96. The more concentrated environment is termed as


97. These are animals capable of varying degrees of endothermic heatproduction, but they generally do not regulate body temperature within asnarrow a range as endotherms


98. Hormone regulates the transfer of sodium from the nephron to the blood


99. Chemicals that cause fever and are produced from blood cells are 


100. Receptors


101. Posterior lobe


102. The three major body fuels managed by the liver are


103. Amonia is secreted by most


104. From the distal convoluted tubule, filtrate will be carried to the


105. Guttation take place through


106. Birds maintain their body temperature within a range of


107. Plants do not excrete ammonia, urea and uric acid because


108. The plants that have adaptation of small and thick leaves to reduce water loss are called


109. Non-surgical removal of kidney stone is called:


110. Stone of uric acid


111. Blood enters the kidney through a branch of aorta called


112. Aldosterone


113. Plasmolysis of a human red blood cell would occur if the cell were choose right option  


114. Which one of the following has least toxicity? 


115. To hags fishes,sea water is


116. Malpighian tubules remove nitrogenous wastes from the:


117. Which of the following is not structure of kidney


118. When an animal cell is placed in a hypotonic environment,it will


119. Regulation of body temperature in homiotherms during high environmentaltemperature involve


120. The hormone which increases the reabsorption of calcium ions in nephron is


121. The internal opening of the metanephridium is knows as


122. Liver also has numerous crucial functions of


123. Among the vertebrates hagfishes are isotonic with the surrounding:


124. Two major control centers for homeostasis are


125. Which of the following is not encotherm?


126. A cell is placed in a solution and swells.This solution is


127. The greater the demand of conserving water, the greater would be thenumber of


128. Which organ is the central station of metabolism?


129. Most invertebrates, fish, amphibians and reptiles are included in 


130. An animal when taken into hot area looses heat by sweating and when to coldarea increases muscular activity to produce more heat.The animal is  


131. Oak


132. The entry of water from salty soil into roots of halophytes takes placebecause the root of halophytes develop


133. Percentage of kidney stones composed of calcium oxalate phosphate


134. Bile


135. Land mammals respond to cold by raising their


136. These are animals that produce metabolic heat at low rates and relyprimarily on conditions of their surroundings


137. A plant without cuticle in leaves and stem, having increased number ofstomata, partially or completely submerged in water is


138. Malpighian tubules are excretory organs found in


139. The plants that have adaptations for reduced rate of transpiration are:


140. A network of closed tubule without internal openings is called:


141. High degree of renal failure is also called


142. All of the following are normally found in urine except


143. The incidence of Calcium Phosphate stones in human are:


144. Regulation of body temperature in homiotherms during cold environmentaltemperature involve  


145. Malpighian body is composed of


146. The tendency of a solution to take up water when separated from pure waterby a selectively permeable membrane is called


147. Ascending loop of Henle


148. Humming bird belongs to a category called


149. In an isotonic there would be


Short Questions

1. Define anhydrobiosis with an example.
2. Define Anhydrobiosis?
3. Define counter current multiplier mechanism.
4. Define Excretion?
5. Define homeostasis.
6. Define homeostasis.Give its importance.
7. Define mesophytes?
8. Define osmoregulation?
9. Define Thermoregulation?
10. Describe xerophytes and their adaptations?
11. Differentiate between ectotherms and endotherms.
12. Differentiate between hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis.
13. Differentiate between shivering and non-shivering thermogenesis.
14. Differentiate between xerophytes and mesophytes. What are xerophytes? Give two adaptations of xerophytes.
15. Draw and label urea cycle.
16. Explain deamination?
17. Explain the process of panting with example.
18. Explain thermoregulation?
19. Give an exact definition of excretion?
20. How do cartilaginous fishes maintain lower internal salt concentration than sea water?
21. How do many fresh water animals including fishes remove excess water from the body?
22. How do some desert mammals like kangaroo rat survive without drinking water?
23. How much water is needed to excrete one gram of ammonia nitrogen, one gram of urea nitrogen and one gram of uric acid nitrogen?
24. How plants are distributed on the basis of osmoregulation?
25. Illustrate the function of Malpighian tubules.
26. In what form nitrogen is excreted by animals?
27. In which animals is ammonia excreted as the chief nitrogenous waste?
28. In which forms in animals is excreted low quantity or very small quantity of nitrogen?
29. Name different types of dialysis
30. Name the excretory structures in animal kingdom that are associated with digestive tract?
31. Name the structures of fresh water protozoans which are meant for osmoregulation?
32. What are ammonia excreting, urea excreting and uric acid excreting animals and the processes called as?
33. What are ammonotelic ureotelic and uricotelic?
34. What are cortical nephrons?
35. What are excretophore?
36. What are flame cells?
37. What are flame cells? Give their role. What are flame cells? Why they are called so?
38. What are heat shock proteins?
39. What are heterotherms?
40. What are Hydrophytes?
41. What are hydrophytes? What are their important adaptations?
42. What are hypercalcemia and hyperoxaluria?
43. What are Juxtamedullary nephrons?
44. What are malpighian tubules?
45. What are Mesophytes?
46. What are metabolic wastes?
47. What are nephridiopores?
48. What are osmoconformers and osmoregulators?
49. What are osmoconformers, as animals? Quote examples.
50. What are Osmoconformers?
51. What are peritubular capillaries?
52. What are pyrogens?
53. What are pyrogens?
54. What are Xerophytes?
55. What do hypotonic, hypertonic and isotonic environment mean for a cell?
56. What do you know about homeostasis?
57. What is bilirubin?
58. What is Bowman’s capsule?
59. What is counter-current multiplier?
60. What is Dialysis?
61. What is ebony?
62. What is excretion?
63. What is extracorporal shock wave lithotripsy?
64. What is glomerular filterate?
65. What is Glomerulus?
66. What is haemodialysis?
67. What is hypertonic environment and what changes occur in a cell in such environment? Differentiate between hypotonic and hypertonic environment.
68. What is Hypertonic environment?
69. What is Hypotonic environment?
70. What is Isotonic environment?
71. What is lithotripsy?
72. What is metanephridium?
73. What is nephron?
74. What is osmoregulation?
75. What is protonephridium?
76. What is the difference between the excretory system of insects and other animals?
77. What is the effect of hypertonic environment on a living cell?
78. What is the most common way of lithotripsy?
79. What is the name of the chemical which is retained by some marine cartilaginous fishes the protection against urea?
80. What is the nature of the metabolic waste materials in plants and in animals?
81. What is the percentage of incidence of different types of stones?
82. What is the role of aldosterone and antidiuretic hormones in kidney?
83. What is urea cycle?
84. What is ureter?
85. What is vasa recta?
86. What role has osmoregulation played in the distribution of plants and animals?
87. What will happen if a living cell is surrounded by a hypotonic solution ?
88. Which groups of animals excrete nitrogenous waste in the form of uric acid?
89. Which of the components of the internal environment of an organism may be affected by fluctuations in the external environment?
90. Which one of the nitrogenous wastes is the most toxic?
91. Which technique is used for the removal of kidney stones?
92. Who are osmoregulators?
93. Why are leaves said to be excretophores?
94. Why leaves are said to be excretophore?
95. Write down the names of the components of the living control system in animals meant for homeostatic regulations.
96. Write down the names of the nitrogenous wastes produced in the animals from the metabolism of purines and pyrimidine’s?
97. Write structural formula of urea and uric acid.

Long Questions

1. Describe the excretory system of cockroach.
2. Describe the osmoregulation in terrestrial environment.
3. Describe the role of liver as excretory organ.
4. Describe various kidney problems and their cure in human. Discuss kidney problems in humans.
5. Discuss excretion in Cockroach.
6. Discuss kidney problems with their cure.
7. Discuss major homeostatic functions of liver.
8. Discuss the excretion in Planaria.
9. Discuss the nature of excretory products in animals to various habitats, specifically in association of water availability.
10. Explain excretion in plants. Describe the excretion in plants.
11. How kidney stone are formed and cured?
12. What is excretion? How do plants excrete their wastes?
13. Write a note on osmoregulation in marine animals and fresh water animals.
14. Write a note on thermoregulation in mammals.
15. Write down the structure and function of nephron.
16. Write note on osmoregulation in marine fishes.

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